Skip to main content

GPG Verify project

Section Goal
  • understand use case of using GPG for document signature verification
  • create and initialize project for the GPG Verify Cartesi Compute dApp :::


In this tutorial, we will explore how Cartesi Compute can be used to implement a solution for a more realistic use case: verifying document signatures using GPG.

Oftentimes, a smart contract needs to validate that a given set of data is indeed authentic, in the sense that it can be trusted to have been provided by a specified agent, and that it has not been tampered. Digital signatures are a great way of achieving that goal. The general idea is that a given user or organization employs a private key to generate a signature for a specific document. Any party that receives a copy of that document and the associated signature can then use the organization's corresponding public key, which is openly distributed, to check the integrity and authenticity of the data.

The GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG) is a widely used tool for encrypting and signing data, and is commonly available in Linux distributions. As such, in this project we will use it inside a Cartesi Machine to check whether a given document's signature is indeed valid. We will detail how to build this solution in the following sections, and a complete implementation can be directly accessed within the Cartesi Compute Tutorials GitHub repo.

Initializing the dApp project

To begin with, let's create a directory for our project and set up some subdirectories inside it, as discussed before:

mkdir gpg-verify
cd gpg-verify
mkdir contracts
mkdir deploy
mkdir cartesi-machine

As always, we need to add the required project dependencies to Hardhat/Ethers and the Cartesi Compute SDK, as well as TypeScript:

yarn add @cartesi/compute-sdk@1.3.0
yarn add ethers@5.4.7 hardhat hardhat-deploy hardhat-deploy-ethers --dev
yarn add typescript ts-node --dev

Finally, we need to create the hardhat.config.ts file to indicate the location of the Ethereum instance running inside our development environment, in addition to the dependency on Cartesi Compute's artifacts and deployments scripts and other configurations:

import { HardhatUserConfig } from "hardhat/config";

import "hardhat-deploy";
import "hardhat-deploy-ethers";

const config: HardhatUserConfig = {
networks: {
localhost: {
url: "http://localhost:8545",
solidity: {
version: "0.7.4",
external: {
contracts: [
artifacts: "node_modules/@cartesi/compute-sdk/export/artifacts",
deploy: "node_modules/@cartesi/compute-sdk/dist/deploy",
deployments: {
localhost: ["../compute-env/deployments/localhost"],
namedAccounts: {
deployer: {
default: 0,
alice: {
default: 0,
bob: {
default: 1,

export default config;

Public key file

As explained above, the idea of signing documents is that any party can use an openly distributed public key to check the validity of a signature. As such, to implement this project we will need to acquire such a key and make it available to our dApp.

In fact, a specific keypair for a fictional user was created just for the purposes of this tutorial, and both its public and private keys are available in the Cartesi Compute Tutorials GitHub repo.

To download the public key to an appropriate location, first cd into the cartesi-machine subdirectory:

cd cartesi-machine

Then, download the public key by typing:


With that set, in the next section we will learn how to supply this key to a Cartesi Machine using an ext2 file-system, so that we can experiment with GPG signature verification inside a Cartesi Machine.

© 2024 Cartesi Foundation Ltd. All rights reserved.

The Cartesi Project is commissioned by the Cartesi Foundation.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By using the website, you agree to the use of cookies.