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Dogecoin Hash machine

Section Goal
  • verify scrypt hash computations in a Cartesi Machine for a real Dogecoin block header
  • build a final machine for Dogecoin/Litecoin block validation

Building ext2 file-system

With our RISC-V scrypt-hash program compiled, we must now pack it for usage within a Cartesi Machine. To do that, we will build an ext2 file-system with the necessary contents, similar to what was done for the GPG Verify tutorial.

To do that, first copy the scrypt-hash executable and the libscrypt shared library we compiled before to a directory called ext2:

mkdir ext2
cp scrypt-hash ext2
cp libscrypt/ ext2

Then, still inside the playground, use the genext2fs tool to generate the file-system with those contents:

genext2fs -b 1024 -d ext2 scrypt-hash.ext2

As such, the generated scrypt-hash.ext2 file now represents an ext2 file-system containing our scrypt hashing program.

Test data

At this point, to finally compute hashes using a Cartesi Machine, all we need is some data. We can start by grabbing the header for Dogecoin block #100000, whose relevant field values in hexadecimal notation are the following:

  • Version: 0x00000002
  • Previous hash: 0x12aca0938fe1fb786c9e0e4375900e8333123de75e240abd3337d1b411d14ebe
  • Merkle root: 0x31757c266102d1bee62ef2ff8438663107d64bdd5d9d9173421ec25fb2a814de
  • Timestamp: 0x52fd869d (corresponds to datetime 2014-02-13 18:59:41 -0800, or 1392346781 in decimal notation)
  • Bits: 0x1b267eeb
  • Nonce: 0x84214800 (equivalent to 2216773632 in decimal notation)

As explained in the technical background, the hashing algorithm's input data can be derived by simply concatenating all those hexadecimal values. The resulting 80 bytes long hexadecimal string can then be written as a binary file with the following command, using the xxd tool:

echo "0000000212aca0938fe1fb786c9e0e4375900e8333123de75e240abd3337d1b411d14ebe31757c266102d1bee62ef2ff8438663107d64bdd5d9d9173421ec25fb2a814de52fd869d1b267eeb84214800" | xxd -r -p > input-doge100000.raw

We can also generate an adulterated invalid block header input, just to see how our hashing service behaves. Here, we will simply change the Nonce value from 0x84214800 to 0x84214801, which corresponds to changing the last digit of the concatenated hex string, as follows:

echo "0000000212aca0938fe1fb786c9e0e4375900e8333123de75e240abd3337d1b411d14ebe31757c266102d1bee62ef2ff8438663107d64bdd5d9d9173421ec25fb2a814de52fd869d1b267eeb84214801" | xxd -r -p > input-doge100000-invalid.raw

Finally, as discussed in other tutorials and in the Cartesi Machine host perspective section, we need to use the truncate tool to pad all drive files to 4K, which is the minimum required length for usage with Cartesi Machines:

truncate -s 4K input-doge100000.raw
truncate -s 4K input-doge100000-invalid.raw
truncate -s 4K output.raw

Testing hash computation

Now that we have all of the necessary resources in place, let's perform some hash computations!

Still within the playground, execute the following command to run the hashing algorithm for the input-doge100000.raw data:

cartesi-machine \
--append-rom-bootargs="single=yes" \
--flash-drive="label:scrypt-hash,filename:scrypt-hash.ext2" \
--flash-drive="label:input,length:1<<12,filename:input-doge100000.raw" \
--flash-drive="label:output,length:1<<12,filename:output.raw,shared" \
-- $'cd /mnt/scrypt-hash ; ./scrypt-hash $(flashdrive input) $(flashdrive output)'

This should yield the following output, showing that our code is being successfully executed within the Cartesi Machine:

/ \
/ \
\---/---\ /----\
\ X \
\----/ \---/---\

Reading input data...
Computing scrypt hash...
Writing computed scrypt hash to output...

Cycles: 95616788

After the execution, we can use the xxd tool again to verify the result written to the first 32 bytes of the output drive:

xxd -p -l 32 -c 32 output.raw

Notice the leading zeros, which indicate a relatively small number. Recalling the explanation of the Bits field given in the technical background, the target hash value for a valid block header with the given Bits value of 0x1b267eeb is given by:

target = 267eeb << 8*(1b - 3) =

Comparing this value to the computed hash above, we can observe that our result is indeed slightly smaller than the required target. This confirms that the given block header is indeed valid! Wow, such computation!

To make sure that our hashing algorithm implementation is really working, let's also run the machine for the adulterated version of the input data:

cartesi-machine \
--append-rom-bootargs="single=yes" \
--flash-drive="label:scrypt-hash,filename:scrypt-hash.ext2" \
--flash-drive="label:input,length:1<<12,filename:input-doge100000-invalid.raw" \
--flash-drive="label:output,length:1<<12,filename:output.raw,shared" \
-- $'cd /mnt/scrypt-hash ; ./scrypt-hash $(flashdrive input) $(flashdrive output)'

This time, checking the resulting hash leads to the following output:

xxd -p -l 32 -c 32 output.raw

Which corresponds to a very high number, as should be expected when hashing random input data. This value is of course way higher than the required target, thus indicating that the given block header is invalid. We can now be sure to have a working Dogecoin block header validator running inside a Cartesi Machine!

Finally, now that we have completed our tests we can exit the playground by typing:


Full machine implementation

Following the same strategy used for the other tutorials, we will finish off our Cartesi Machine implementation by producing a bash script that allows us to easily build and appropriately store the machine's template specification. This way, the machine will be available for Cartesi Compute to instantiate computations whenever a smart contract requests it.

It should also be noted that, as discussed in the GPG Verify tutorial, the process of creating ext2 file-systems using the genext2fs tool is not reproducible. This means that each generated ext2 file leads to a different Cartesi Machine template hash, even if the file-system's contents are identical. For this reason, to exactly reproduce this tutorial's results, you can download the actual scrypt-hash.ext2 file used when writing this documentation. To do that, run the following command:

rm scrypt-hash.ext2

After that, let's create the file inside the cartesi-machine directory:

chmod +x

Then, edit the file and insert the following contents:


# general definitions
# set machines directory to specified path if provided
if [ $1 ]; then

# removes machine temp store directory if it exists
if [ -d "$MACHINE_TEMP_DIR" ]; then

# builds machine (running with 0 cycles)
# - initial (template) hash is printed on screen
# - machine is stored in temporary directory
docker run \
-e USER=$(id -u -n) \
-e GROUP=$(id -g -n) \
-e UID=$(id -u) \
-e GID=$(id -g) \
-v `pwd`:/home/$(id -u -n) \
-w /home/$(id -u -n) \
--rm $CARTESI_PLAYGROUND_DOCKER cartesi-machine \
--max-mcycle=0 \
--initial-hash \
--append-rom-bootargs="single=yes" \
--store="$MACHINE_TEMP_DIR" \
--flash-drive="label:scrypt-hash,filename:scrypt-hash.ext2" \
--flash-drive="label:input,length:1<<12" \
--flash-drive="label:output,length:1<<12" \
-- $'cd /mnt/scrypt-hash ; ./scrypt-hash $(flashdrive input) $(flashdrive output)'

# defines target directory as being within $MACHINES_DIR and named after the stored machine's hash
-e USER=$(id -u -n) \
-e GROUP=$(id -g -n) \
-e UID=$(id -u) \
-e GID=$(id -g) \
-v `pwd`:/home/$(id -u -n) \
-h playground \
-w /home/$(id -u -n) \
--rm $CARTESI_PLAYGROUND_DOCKER cartesi-machine-stored-hash $MACHINE_TEMP_DIR/ | tail -n 1)

# moves stored machine to the target directory
if [ -d "$MACHINE_TARGET_DIR" ]; then

With this script ready, the final Cartesi Machine template can finally be built and stored in the appropriate location within the Cartesi Compute SDK environment by executing the following command:

./ ../../compute-env/machines

Running the above command should give you the following output, which includes the appropriate templateHash value to use when instantiating this computation from a smart contract:

0: b48fa074594a537fcc7c1069fc3eeabcbbcabff6f479c08a5c12efdd73b4ca20

Cycles: 0
Storing machine: please wait

Finally, we can cd back to the dogecoin-hash home directory:

cd ..

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