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Full Calculator dApp

Section Goal
  • create Calculator smart contract
  • deploy and run full Calculator dApp :::

Calculator smart contract

Given the Cartesi Machine implemented in the previous section and the project structure initialized before, we will now complete the implementation of our Calculator dApp by creating and deploying its smart contract.

In order to do that, create a file called Calculator.sol inside the calculator/contracts directory, and then place the following contents into it:

// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0-only
pragma solidity ^0.7.0;
pragma experimental ABIEncoderV2;

import "@cartesi/compute-sdk/contracts/CartesiComputeInterface.sol";

contract Calculator {
CartesiComputeInterface cartesiCompute;

bytes32 templateHash = 0x9e2918f0cf6ef9d8c9281e4d865f56e9a5cc9d3bef4e254c3483edd9cdb25df0;
uint64 outputPosition = 0xa000000000000000;
uint8 outputLog2Size = 10;
uint256 finalTime = 1e11;
uint256 roundDuration = 51;

// mathematical expression to evaluate
bytes expression = "2^71 + 36^12";
uint8 expressionLog2Size = 5;

constructor(address cartesiComputeAddress) {
cartesiCompute = CartesiComputeInterface(cartesiComputeAddress);

function instantiate(address[] memory parties) public returns (uint256) {

// specifies an input drive containing the mathematical expression
CartesiComputeInterface.Drive[] memory drives = new CartesiComputeInterface.Drive[](1);
drives[0] = CartesiComputeInterface.Drive(
0x9000000000000000, // 2nd drive position: 1st is the root file-system (0x8000..)
expressionLog2Size, // driveLog2Size
expression, // directValue
"", // loggerIpfsPath
0x00, // loggerRootHash
parties[0], // provider
false, // waitsProvider
false, // needsLogger
false // downloadAsCar

// instantiates the computation
return cartesiCompute.instantiate(

function getResult(uint256 index) public view returns (bool, bool, address, bytes memory) {
return cartesiCompute.getResult(index);

This contract is actually very similar to the one created for the Hello World dApp, with a few relevant changes and additions. The most important of these is the specification of the input drive within the instantiate method. First of all, the drive's position in the address space is defined as 0x9000000000000000. As explained in the Cartesi Compute drives section and in the Hello World instantiation section, this actually corresponds to the default position for the machine's second drive, the first one being the machine's root file-system itself. Furthermore, the drive's definition includes its data as a string representing the mathematical expression of interest (in this case, "2^71 + 36^12"), along with the log2 of the drive's total size (which in practice is not allowed to be smaller than 5, or 32 bytes).

Aside from the input drive, we should also note the declaration of the appropriate templateHash value 0x9e2918f0..., which identifies the computation to execute and must thus correspond to the hash reported when we built the Cartesi Machine. Finally, the outputPosition value acknowledges that the output drive is now the 3rd drive in the Cartesi Machine specification, thus located by default at address 0xa000000000000000.

Deployment and execution

With the contract implemented, we are now ready to compile and deploy it to the local development network using Hardhat.

First, create a deployment script called 01_contracts.ts inside the calculator/deploy directory. This file will be almost identical to the one created before for the Hello World dApp, and should contain the following TypeScript code:

import { HardhatRuntimeEnvironment } from "hardhat/types";
import { DeployFunction } from "hardhat-deploy/types";

const func: DeployFunction = async (hre: HardhatRuntimeEnvironment) => {
const { deployments, getNamedAccounts } = hre;
const { deploy, get } = deployments;
const { deployer } = await getNamedAccounts();

const CartesiCompute = await get("CartesiCompute");
await deploy("Calculator", {
from: deployer,
log: true,
args: [CartesiCompute.address],

export default func;

Now, compile and deploy the Calculator smart contract by executing:

npx hardhat deploy --network localhost

Once this is completed successfully, we can use Hardhat's console to instantiate the computation using the environment's addresses for alice and bob:

npx hardhat console --network localhost
> { alice, bob } = await getNamedAccounts()
> calc = await ethers.getContract("Calculator")
> tx = await calc.instantiate([alice, bob])

After a while, the computation will be completed and we will be able to query the results by calling the smart contract's getResult method with the appropriate index:

> index = (await tx.wait()).events[0].data
> result = await calc.getResult(index)

Notice that the response data (last entry at index 3) is quite large. This is because we specified a log2 size of 10 for the outputLog2Size in our smart contract, meaning that the output drive will have 1024 bytes. We can better inspect this output data by executing the following command:

> console.log(ethers.utils.toUtf8String(result[3]))

Which gives us the expected result, as we saw earlier when testing the Cartesi Machine. This means that our smart contract is now indeed capable of computing any arbitrary mathematical expression using the Linux bc tool!

In the next section, we will see how we can easily extend this idea to perform not only mathematical calculations but any arbitrary computation using standard script languages such as Python or Lua.

© 2024 Cartesi Foundation Ltd. All rights reserved.

The Cartesi Project is commissioned by the Cartesi Foundation.

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