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Version: 1.0

Create your first dApp

Once you learned how to run a simple example, it is now time to create one of your own. In order to do this, we will make use of the existing dApps available in Cartesi's rollups-examples Github repository. Once again, make sure you have installed all the necessary requirements before proceeding.

Example dApp

The 'fortune' package in Linux contains a command-line tool that randomly displays quotes from a set of predefined lists, which serve as its quote database. This tutorial demonstrates how to create a dApp that installs this package, calls it from a Python script, and displays the result.

Set up the environment

First of all, clone the rollups-examples repository as follows:

git clone https://github.com/cartesi/rollups-examples.git

Copy an existing dApp

We suggest using a sample dApp that utilizes a new build system, docker-riscv, instead of the outdated toolchain system:

In this example, we are using the existing Calculator dApp as a basis to build a new dApp called 'fortune'.

cd rollups-examples
cp -r calculator/ fortune
cd fortune

Adjust build files

  • Change calculator.py to fortune.py
  • Change the dApp name in entrypoint.sh to rollup-init python3 fortune.py
  • Change the dApp name in the Dockerfile to COPY ./fortune.py
  • Change the dApp name in docker-bake.override.hcl to dapp:fortune
  • Change the dApp name in docker-compose.override.yml to dapp:fortune-devel-server
  • Amend the Readme as required.

Test the copied dApp

First of all, check if your Docker supports the RISCV platform by running:

docker buildx ls

If you do not see linux/riscv64 in the platforms list, install QEMU by running:

apt install qemu-user-static

QEMU is a generic and open source machine emulator and virtualizer that will be used by Docker to emulate RISCV instructions to build a Cartesi Machine for your dApp.

After installing QEMU, the platform linux/riscv64 should appear in the platforms list.

Build the copied existing dApp to ensure that the Docker image functions correctly:

docker buildx bake --load
note

If you have PostgreSQL and Redis already installed on your system, you may encounter port conflicts when the Docker containers attempt to start services on ports that are already in use. To resolve these conflicts, edit the ports for Redis and PostgreSQL in the docker-compose.yml file located in the root directory of your dApp.

Add the fortune package to the Dockerfile

Add the fortune package to the Docker image as follows:

RUN apt-get update \
&& apt-get install -y fortune \
&& rm -rf /var/apt/lists/*

This command updates the package lists for a Debian-based Linux system, installs the fortune package without confirmation, and then cleans up the package list files to save space.

So our full Dockerfile will look as follows:

# syntax=docker.io/docker/dockerfile:1.4
FROM --platform=linux/riscv64 cartesi/python:3.10-slim-jammy

WORKDIR /opt/cartesi/dapp

RUN apt-get update \
&& apt-get install -y fortune \
&& rm -rf /var/apt/lists/*

COPY ./requirements.txt .
RUN pip install -r requirements.txt --no-cache \
&& find /usr/local/lib -type d -name __pycache__ -exec rm -r {} +

COPY ./entrypoint.sh .
COPY ./fortune.py .

Modify the dApp logic

  1. First we need to import the subprocess package:
import subprocess
  1. We then delete from py_expression_eval import Parser as we are not using the parser module in our application.

  2. Next, we need to add the FORTUNE_CMD command to our code as follows:

FORTUNE_CMD = "/usr/games/fortune; exit 0"

This command sets the FORTUNE_CMD variable to a string that, when executed, runs the fortune program to display a random quote and then immediately exits the shell with a success status.

  1. We then replace the existing try function of def handle_advance(data) with the following command that calls the fortune app:
    try:
input = hex2str(data["payload"])
logger.info(f"Received input: {input}")

quote = subprocess.check_output(FORTUNE_CMD, shell=True, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT).decode()
output = f"Received input: {input}. This was the quote {quote}"

# Emits notice with result of calculation
logger.info(f"Adding notice with payload: '{output}'")
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/notice", json={"payload": str2hex(str(output))})
logger.info(f"Received notice status {response.status_code} body {response.content}")

The quote runs the command stored in FORTUNE_CMD using a shell, captures the output (including errors), and then decodes it from bytes to a string, storing the result in the variable output. The output creates a formatted string with placeholders, replacing {input} and {quote} with the values of the variables input and quote, respectively, and assigns the resulting string to the variable output.

  1. We then change the code of the def handle_inspect(data): function to:
    logger.info(f"Received inspect request data {data}")

status = "accept"
try:
input = hex2str(data["payload"])
logger.info(f"Received input: {input}")

output = subprocess.check_output(FORTUNE_CMD, shell=True, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT).decode()

# Emits notice with result of calculation
logger.info(f"Adding report with payload: '{output}'")
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/report", json={"payload": str2hex(str(output))})
logger.info(f"Received report status {response.status_code} body {response.content}")

except Exception as e:
status = "reject"
msg = f"Error processing data {data}\n{traceback.format_exc()}"
logger.error(msg)
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/report", json={"payload": str2hex(msg)})
logger.info(f"Received report status {response.status_code} body {response.content}")

return status

Create the Docker build for the new dApp

docker buildx bake --load

The docker buildx is an extended toolset for Docker, which provides full support for the features of the Moby BuildKit builder toolkit. The bake command is part of this extension and simplifies the process of defining and running builds by using a declarative format in the form of a docker-bake.hcl or a docker-compose.yml. When the --load flag is added, it instructs BuildKit to build the Docker image and then immediately load it into the local Docker runtime environment.

Start the application

docker compose -f ../docker-compose.yml -f ./docker-compose.override.yml -f ../docker-compose-host.yml up

Check the dApp address

We now will check our dApp address by viewing the contents of the dapp.json file located in the deployments/localhost/ directory inside the rollups-examples repository:

cat ../deployments/localhost/dapp.json

It will return a response similar to the one below:

"address": "0x142105FC8dA71191b3a13C738Ba0cF4BC33325e2",
"blockHash":"0xa228c81061345a0db2910c3f253213bfab131cd575c4589b370555bb748b6238"
"blockNumber": 22,
"transactionHash":"0x77b6be9c95b16f7ab880fc7662028ealdea3279fe28f0382706dd693f0d5315d"

Build the frontend console

In the cloned rollups-examples repository, navigate to the frontend-console:

cd frontend-console

And build it:

yarn
yarn build

Run an inspect call

From the front-end console directory:

yarn start inspect --payload 'test'

This will get us a qoute, similar to the one below:

yarn run v1.22.19
$ ts-node src/index. ts inspect - -payload test
HTTP status: 200
Inspect status: "Accepted"
Input count: 0
Reports:
0:
My dear People.
My dear Bagginses and Boffins, and my dear Tooks and Brandybucks,
and Grubbs, and Chubbs, and Burrowses, and Hornblowers, and Bolgers,
Bracegirdles, Goodbodies, Brockhouses and Proudfoots. Also my good
Sackville Bagginses that I welcome back at last to Bag End.
one hundred and eleventh birthday: I am eleventy-one today!"
Today is my
J. R. R. Tolkien

If we execute the inspect command again, it will consistently produce the same result, thereby providing the same quote each time.

Run an advance call

From the front-end console directory:

yarn start input send --payload 'test'

It will give us a response similar to the one below:

yarn run v1.22.19
$ ts-node src/index. ts input send
connecting to http://localhost:8545
payload test
connected to chain 31337
using account "Oxf39Fd6e51aad88F6F4ce6aB8827279cffFb92266"
sending "test"
transaction: 0x4ea14167cd19c08379ca22afa568fb952073bb7762e5cd66a36cdccdb875d65f
waiting for confirmation...
input 0 added

Upon executing the inspect command now, it will generate a new quote.

Request a notice

From the front-end console directory:

yarn start notice list

This will return the previous quote:

yarn run v1.22.19
ts-node src/index. ts notice list
querying http://localhost:4000/graphql for notices of input index "undefined"...
[{"index" :0, Tinput": 0, "payload" : "Received input: test. This was the quote \tMy dear People. \n\tMy dear Bagginses and Boffins, and my dear Tooks and Brandybucks, \nand Grubbs, and Chubbs, and Burrowses,
nd Hornblowers, and Bolgers, \nBracegirdles, Goodbodies, Brockhouses and Proudfoots. Also my good \nSackville Bagginses that welcome back at last to Bag End. Today is my\none hundred and eleventh birt
hday: am eleventy-one today! \"\n\t\t - - J. R. R. Tolkien\n"}]

An intriguing aspect, demonstrating how Cartesi Machine operates, is that the Cartesi Machine is designed to roll back to a previous state every time its state is inspected. Therefore, if we execute the same inspect command repeatedly, it consistently returns the same result, as the machine keeps reverting to its prior state.

Stop the application

You can shutdown the environment with ctrl+c and then running:

docker compose -f ../docker-compose.yml -f ./docker-compose.override.yml down -v
note

Every time you stop the docker compose ... up command with ctrl+c, you need to run the docker compose ... down -v command to remove the volumes and containers. Ignoring this will preserve outdated information in those volumes, causing unexpected behaviors, such as failure to reset the hardhat localchain.

Application code

Now let's have a look at the entire code of our sample application:

# Copyright 2022 Cartesi Pte. Ltd.
#
# SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use
# this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the
# License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed
# under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR
# CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the
# specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

from os import environ
import traceback
import logging
import requests

import subprocess

logging.basicConfig(level="INFO")
logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

rollup_server = environ["ROLLUP_HTTP_SERVER_URL"]
logger.info(f"HTTP rollup_server url is {rollup_server}")

FORTUNE_CMD = "/usr/games/fortune; exit 0"

def hex2str(hex):
"""
Decodes a hex string into a regular string
"""
return bytes.fromhex(hex[2:]).decode("utf-8")

def str2hex(str):
"""
Encodes a string as a hex string
"""
return "0x" + str.encode("utf-8").hex()

def handle_advance(data):
logger.info(f"Received advance request data {data}")

status = "accept"
try:
input = hex2str(data["payload"])
logger.info(f"Received input: {input}")

quote = subprocess.check_output(FORTUNE_CMD, shell=True, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT).decode()
output = f"Received input: {input}. This was the quote {quote}"

# Emits notice with result of calculation
logger.info(f"Adding notice with payload: '{output}'")
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/notice", json={"payload": str2hex(str(output))})
logger.info(f"Received notice status {response.status_code} body {response.content}")

except Exception as e:
status = "reject"
msg = f"Error processing data {data}\n{traceback.format_exc()}"
logger.error(msg)
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/report", json={"payload": str2hex(msg)})
logger.info(f"Received report status {response.status_code} body {response.content}")

return status

def handle_inspect(data):
logger.info(f"Received inspect request data {data}")

status = "accept"
try:
input = hex2str(data["payload"])
logger.info(f"Received input: {input}")

output = subprocess.check_output(FORTUNE_CMD, shell=True, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT).decode()

# Emits notice with result of calculation
logger.info(f"Adding report with payload: '{output}'")
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/report", json={"payload": str2hex(str(output))})
logger.info(f"Received report status {response.status_code} body {response.content}")

except Exception as e:
status = "reject"
msg = f"Error processing data {data}\n{traceback.format_exc()}"
logger.error(msg)
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/report", json={"payload": str2hex(msg)})
logger.info(f"Received report status {response.status_code} body {response.content}")

return status

handlers = {
"advance_state": handle_advance,
"inspect_state": handle_inspect,
}

finish = {"status": "accept"}

while True:
logger.info("Sending finish")
response = requests.post(rollup_server + "/finish", json=finish)
logger.info(f"Received finish status {response.status_code}")
if response.status_code == 202:
logger.info("No pending rollup request, trying again")
else:
rollup_request = response.json()
data = rollup_request["data"]

handler = handlers[rollup_request["request_type"]]
finish["status"] = handler(rollup_request["data"])

As we conclude this tutorial, we hope that you now have a better understanding of how to build a dApp that uses the fortune package and how the Cartesi Machine drives the dApp's logic. Don't hesitate to experiment further with these tools and techniques, as they can greatly expand your capabilities in creating your custom dApps. Happy coding!

© 2023 Cartesi Foundation Ltd. All rights reserved.

The Cartesi Project is commissioned by the Cartesi Foundation.

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